The purpose of this report is detail the Productivity Commission's investigation of the costs and benefits of developing a national education evidence base to guide policy and teaching practices to improve children's educational outcomes and ensure equal access to quality education. The Commission noted that there is a growing national and international consensus that while resourcing and accountability are important, they are insufficient to achieve improvements in educational attainment. A National Education Evidence Base is needed to identify best practice and turn this into common practice. The Commission maintains the Australian, state and territory governments must take a shared and co-operative approach to developing a high quality Australian education evidence base to guide both practice and policy and also provide data to qualified researchers. The report includes a range of recommendations for establishing a national education evidence base.