This paper from the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet sets out the Evaluation Framework for assessing programs conducted as part of the Indigenous Advancement Strategy (IAS). The Framework is designed to ensure that evaluation is high quality, ethical, inclusive and focused on improving outcomes for Indigenous Australians. The core values of this framework drive fundamental questions about how well IAS programs and activities build on strengths to make a positive contribution to the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and inform government policies and programs. The framework sets out best practice principles for evaluations to be relevant, robust, appropriate and credible. High quality evaluation should be integrated into the cycles of policy and community decision-making which should be collaborative, timely and culturally inclusive. The Framework focuses on recognising the strengths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, communities and cultures and working collaboratively with them. Bringing the diverse perspectives of Indigenous Australians into evaluation processes helps ensure the relevance, credibility and usefulness of evaluation findings. Therefore the involvement of Indigenous Australian evaluators in conducting all forms of evaluation is valued and particularly when using participatory methods that grow our mutual understanding.