This is the annual report on child protection from AIHW. It contains detailed statistical information on state and territory child protection and support services, and selected characteristics of children receiving these services. It reveals that one in 32 children received chid protection services, with 74% being repeat clients. Rates of substantiations of child maltreatment have continued to rise. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children continue to be over-represented in the child protection system. Children living in very remote regions were 4 times as likely as those living in major cities to be the subject of a substantiation. Fiflty-two per cent of children living in relative/kinship placements were with grandparents. Of the children who were living in long-term out-of-home care in 2016-17 62% were under the legal responsibility of the state or territory while 24% lived with a third-party carer who had long-term legal responsibility for them.