This is a national report card on chronic disease and risk factors in the population by socio-economic status from the Australian Health Policy Collaboration. The report notes that mortality and life expectancy between people in different socio-economic groups is one of the starkest measures of health inequality in Australia. Furthermore, the authors argue that the association of economic circumstances with rising levels of poor health of large segments of the Australian population is one of the most pressing issues which needs to be addressed. Growing social and economic stress is having a direct impact on household budgets. Rising cost-of-living, high utility bills, spiralling grocery prices and a tough rental market together with insecure employment puts 10 million Australians at greater risk of developing chronic disease. This national report card calls for tailored policies to address the health impacts of social and economic conditions to significantly improve all aspects of society and contribute directly to a prosperous, productive and healthy nation.