This report outlines the findings from a longitudinal analysis examining the changes in the scale and nature of homelessness in Australia, as well as how social, economic and policy drivers influence these changes. The authors present the findings in relation to: (1) the changing scope and pattern of homelessness; (2) the nature of broader social and economic drivers that condition the risk of homelessness, especially for some groups such as low-income households; and (3) the relevance of particular policies at federal, state and territory levels in both exacerbating and easing homelessness. The impact of housing policies, income support policies, homelessness programs and Indigenous homelessness policies are specifically focused on. The authors demonstrate how public policies, particularly housing and welfare policies, are firstly, critical drivers of homelessness in Australia, and secondly, areas that represent significant opportunities to demonstrably reduce homelessness. They identify a range of changes to public policies that can improve the housing and life outcomes of homeless people or those at risk of homelessness.