08 July 2019

Childhood gender‐typed behavior and emotional or peer problems: A prospective birth‐cohort study

This longitudinal research followed a large cohort of children from 6 to 16 years of age to investigate the relationship between childhood gender-typed behaviour and peer and emotional problems. Overall, more female-typical behaviours were generally associated with greater subsequent emotional and peer problems, regardless of gender.  So for boys, more gender-nonconforming behaviour was associated with greater subsequent emotional and peer problems in childhood and adolescence. In contrast, for girls more gender-nonconforming behaviour was associated with fewer emotional problems in childhood and adolescence.