This report from the AIHW provides estimates of the total, non-fatal and fatal burden of disease for 216 diseases and injuries and the contribution of various modifiable risk factors for the Australian population in 2015. In 2015, Australians lost 4.8 million years of healthy life (DALY) due to living with non-fatal illness (50.4% of the total burden) or dying prematurely (49.6% of total burden); with more burden for males than females. Five diseases caused most of the burden of disease; cancer, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal conditions, mental and substance use disorders, and injuries. Overall, the health of the Australian population has improved over the 12-year period from 2003 to 2015. Over one-third of the disease burden is preventable. The burden of disease is not equally distributed across Australia. The Northern Territory's rate is 1.4 times the national average; remote and very remote areas is 1.4 times the major cities, and lowest socioeconomic group is 1.5 times the highest socioeconomic group.